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Structure of a Router deals This chapter starts the reader in the knowledge of the internal structure of a router, as a device that requires certain processing capabilities, and as such, it contains at least one microprocessor and a minimum amount of memory (there are multiprocessor models with large amounts of RAM). Other components of interest will also be remembered, such as the Router deals Interfaces, and the IOS version, the Cisco Device Operating System. Finally, we will enter the boot sequence of a Cisco device, which has an amazing resemblance to the boot sequence of a desktop PC or a Server. The contents of the different parts of the Structure of a Router chapter of the Cisco CCNA Manual can then be accessed: Structure of a Router Start Sequence Structure of a Router Routers have to be able to build routing tables, execute commands and route packets through network interfaces through the use of routing protocols, so they integrate a microprocessor. Router deals, For example, a Cisco 2505 router contains a Motorola 68EC030 processor at 20MHZ. Depending on the router, we will have one or several microprocessors, even being able to expand the microprocessor. In addition, the routers need storage capacity, in fact containing different types of memory components:
ROM Contains the Power On Self Test (POST) and router load program. ROM chips also contain part or all of the router's operating system (I0S). NVRAM It stores the boot configuration file for the router since NVRAM memory maintains the information even if the power in the router is interrupted. RAM flash It is a special type of ROM that can be erased and reprogrammed, used to store the IOS running the router. Router deals, Some routers execute the 1OS image directly from the Flash without loading it into RAM, such as the 2500 series. Usually, the IOS file stored in Flash memory is stored in a compressed RAM format. It provides temporary storage of information (packets are stored in RAM while the router examines its routing information), in addition to maintaining other information, such as the routing table currently being used. Configuration Record. It is used to control the way the router starts. It is a 16-bit register, where the lower four bits form the boot field, which can take the following values:
Router deals, the remaining bits of the configuration register carry out functions that include the baud rate selection of the console, and if the NVRAM configuration is to be used, it is possible to change the configuration register config-register, such as config -register 0x2102. This command sets the 16 bits of the configuration register, so we will have to be careful to keep the remaining bits. To know at any time the value of the configuration register we will use the show version command, and we will look at the line that once Configuration register is through the global configuration command The router interfaces must also be selected, as well as the complements (cables), and others) that are necessary. This task is especially critical in modular routers, such as the 7500 families, where we acquire each interface separately, with a number of custom ports.
Determining the interconnection task that the router will perform, the version of the 1OS to be used must be decided, which will also have to support the type of routing and functions to be performed, taking into account that it is acquired separately. Finally, we can only think of other factors such as redundant power supply systems, weight, size, etc. Boot Sequence When a router is turned on, the ROM memory chips perform a Power On Self Test (POST) that checks the router's hardware such as the processor, interfaces, and memory. Router deals, Then we proceed to execute the loading program (bootstrap), which is also stored in the ROM and is responsible for searching the router's 1OS, which can be found in ROM, Flash memory (usually), or on a TFTP server. Once the router's IOS is loaded, it goes to find the configuration file, which is normally found in NVRAM memory but can also be obtained from a TFTP server.
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